Whitesides, Woodford L. & Ann A. Flowers University Abettor at Harvard, is this year’s Priestley Medalist.
Credit: Harvard University Photo
GEORGE M. WHITESIDES is so active that it can booty months to book him for an appointment. The Harvard University chemist is in appeal as a apostle and as a affiliate of advising panels. He’s on the boards of admiral of several companies he helped start. The 67-year-old allure abettor maintains a biking agenda that would bankrupt bodies bisected his age. He manages to do all this while administering an aggressive and advantageous analysis accession of added than 40 acceptance and postdocs. He additionally teaches at Harvard. It’s his perennially close portfolio of contributions to allure that has becoming him this year’s Priestley Medal, the American Actinic Society’s accomplished honor.
When he’s absolutely in boondocks in Cambridge, Mass., Whitesides’ day about begins with a 7 AM affair with whomever happened to accomplish it assimilate his agenda that day, followed by coffee at the Science Center cafeteria. His wife, Barbara, generally joins him for morning coffee because it’s the easiest abode to bolt up with him. Afterwards that, his day passes in a becloud of classes, meetings, and added assignment that can aftermost until 9 at night. Fourteen-hour canicule are routine.
That akin of action lends Whitesides an acute abode that is at allowance with his added airy nature. His accompany get to see a ancillary of him that others generally miss. Breadth strangers and acquaintances see an alarming figure, his accompany and ancestors see a warm, bashful man with a acceptable adroitness of humor. Whitesides finds amusement in best things. “Life is afflicted if you booty it seriously,” he says.
No bulk how active he is, Whitesides makes time for his family, including his wife of 37 years and their two developed sons, George T. (not junior) and Benjamin. George T. remembers his ancestor demography the time to appear to his hockey games. Whitesides, not your archetypal hockey dad, sat in the stands, auspicious back his son was on the ice and acclimation affidavit or alteration manuscripts back he wasn’t. Back Whitesides travels, which is often, he calls home daily.
Photographer Felice Frankel, chief analysis adolescent with Harvard’s Initiative in Innovative Computing, is a abettor and friend. She occasionally gets balked back Whitesides’ agenda delays projects, but she says: “He’s been an absurd friend. Back he decides to be your friend, it’s for life.”
“Of course, he’s apprenticed and intense, but you don’t feel it,” says Jeremy R. Knowles, a longtime acquaintance and aide who is currently the administrator of the Adroitness of Arts & Sciences at Harvard. “With abounding bodies of such intellect, you feel it. With George, you admit it, but you apperceive you’re in the attendance of a balmy animal being.”
Still, the aloft and abyss of Whitesides’ adeptness and interests can accomplish bodies feel inadequate. Carmichael Roberts, a aloft postdoc who has connected to assignment carefully with Whitesides in business settings, has apparent bodies accompanying afraid and aflame about affair Whitesides. “You aloof access to be able that it’s access not to apperceive what he knows,” Roberts says.
“I don’t appetite to acrylic George as some warm, down-covered teddy bear,” Roberts stresses. “He’s actual direct, actual transparent, no dancing about an issue,” Roberts says, abacus that Whitesides doesn’t alternate to catechism positions that accomplish no adroitness to him.
Whitesides suspects that his artlessness may be the antecedent of his acceptability for aggressiveness. “I’ve never apparent any acumen if I don’t access article not to ask why. As anon as you alpha allurement why, you actual rapidly adeptness the bend of the universe. Back that goes on at a seminar, bodies get embarrassed.”
In addition, Whitesides senses an aloofness in the way he asks questions. “I’m appealing dispassionate,” he says. “I’m not aggravating to abash people, but I would like to apperceive the answer, and I don’t like a bisected acknowledgment or bouncing of hands. Unfortunately, it’s easier to ask questions than it is to acknowledgment them.”
Whitesides describes himself as “curious by nature.” Accustomed that analytic nature, bodies adeptness be afraid by what originally admiring him to chemistry—washing glassware. As a teen, Whitesides formed as a artisan at his father’s actinic engineering close in Louisville, breadth one of his tasks was charwoman glassware. He says he begin it “soothing.”
Three admission streams of aqueous are disconnected and recombined, creating a acclivity aloft the access erect to the administration of flow. Whitesides’ accession uses such artifact methods to arrangement gradients on microfluidic surfaces to abstraction chemotaxis of neutrophils and to ascendancy the acclimatization of neurons.
Credit: Anal. Chem.
WHEN CHALLENGED about the draw of such banal tasks, Whitesides explains: “Any profession consists of a lot of accepted actuality and occasionally absolutely absorbing things. If you like the accepted stuff, the accomplished affair is okay.”
Although he enjoyed those summer jobs, he entered Harvard as a apprentice aggravating to adjudge amid allure and mathematics. Although he says he was “perfectly adequate” as a mathematician, the administration at Harvard believed that a abandoned able apprentice had no absolute approaching in mathematics. His advisers there encouraged him to focus his activity elsewhere.
With his algebraic chicane thwarted, Whitesides angry to chemistry. There was abandoned one problem: He was declining his analytic allure course. “What can I do?” Whitesides recalls allurement the professor. The reply? “Well, I assumption you’ll access to apprentice the material,” the abettor said. Whitesides proceeded to do absolutely that.
In alertness for his approaching exams that cardinal semester, Whitesides in a bulk of weeks formed through the absolute term’s account of actual until he accepted the answers. He aced the exam, and in acceptance of the assignment that went into that achievement, his abettor gave him an A for the course, too. Whitesides became a allure major, admission from Harvard with a bachelor’s bulk in 1960. What was to advance into a top-tier career in allure was born.
Whitesides has fabricated contributions in a cardinal of fields alignment from nuclear alluring resonance spectroscopy to organometallic allure to apparent science. He has served on government advising boards and founded companies to commercialize discoveries. He has brought science to lay audiences through his accord with Frankel to which he contributes a adulation and compassionate of atomic phenomena and she brings a adeptness for cogent these realities pictorially. In 1997, the two appear a beauteous amalgamation of chat and account in a book blue-blooded “On the Apparent of Things.”
His alum career benefited from the aforementioned affectionate of accidental midcourse alteration that angry him into a chemist as an undergraduate. While still at Harvard, he won a National Science Foundation predoctoral acquaintance that could be acclimated for alum abstraction at any university. He activated to the University of California, Berkeley, but the academy never responded to his appliance or consecutive inquiries. He contacted Caltech and asked if he could do alum studies there instead.
Caltech’s allure administration accustomed him, but few analysis groups there had openings. By luck, he concluded up in the John D. Roberts laboratory. His alum analysis focused on applying NMR spectroscopy and body cast calculations to the abstraction of Grignard reagents.
As a alum apprentice in the aboriginal 1960s, Whitesides was a aloof researcher who generally toiled backward into the night with folk music on the radio to accumulate him company. He had activated affidavit for his schedule, including the late-night availability of ample blocks of time on the NMR spectrometer. “Every already in a while, article absorbing would appear in agreement of science,” Whitesides recalls, acquainted that what mostly abiding him was a activity that the absolute action was “just abundant fun.”
A attenuate berserk self-assembled monolayer separates the hydrophilic squares, which anniversary board a absolute baptize droplet. The image, versions of which garnered the awning of Science and appeared in the book “On the Apparent of Things,” apparent the alpha of the accord amid Whitesides and Frankel.
Credit: Courtesy of Felice Frankel
He begin the activated mathematics to be the best absorbing part. Says Whitesides: “I did body cast calculations in a aeon back amoebic chemists not abandoned did not do body cast calculations but had never heard of a body matrix.” (Density matrices are a anatomy of breakthrough mechanics that can be activated to the circuit systems that NMR analyses detect.) Roberts admits that he abstruse about body matrices from Whitesides.
In the acknowledgments of his dissertation, Whitesides thanked Roberts for his “indirection”—the abandon to go his own way. “There was an astronomic bulk of freedom in the group. Bodies could basically do what they capital to do,” Whitesides says. He has acclimated such an access himself, alike with his own children. Neither son has followed in his father’s footsteps, nor did Whitesides anytime advance them against careers in science. “My father’s axiological aesthetics against childrearing was that kids charge to bulk it out for themselves,” says George T. He now is the controlling administrator of the National Amplitude Association in Washington, D.C. Ben is the advance accompanist of an indie bedrock band, the Joggers, and lives in Portland, Ore. Some of this adulation for music could able-bodied access had benevolent roots: George Whitesides enjoys classical music and plays the classical guitar.
Roberts advised his acceptance as colleagues, and Whitesides afterwards brought that access to his own analysis group. “There are absolutely roles for a analysis administrator in ambience strategies and advancing up with acceptable ideas, but a analysis accession does not run able-bodied if the abandoned antecedent of ideas” is the analysis director, Whitesides says. “Had I been aloft in a altered analysis accession in which the apprehension was that all account appear from the analysis director, I would access started from a altered point. Breadth I would access concluded up, I don’t know.”
In September 1963, Whitesides went beeline from Caltech to an abettor abettor position at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (His Ph.D. was acutely conferred in 1964, acknowledgment to a once-a-year arrangement of acceding degrees.) Whitesides doubts he would access benefited from a postdoctoral position. “I was acquisitive to go off and do my own thing,” he says. “If you access analytic acceptable aftertaste about what’s new, again you adeptness as able-bodied go do it.”
During his aboriginal canicule at MIT, Whitesides played the role of “the accession postdoc.” He had a bank in the lab with the students, and he didn’t get an appointment for four or bristles years. Whitesides helped advance the alpha techniques that the accession acclimated in their studies of air-sensitive organometallic compounds.
Whitesides and his wife, Barbara, with their sons, George T. and Ben.
Credit: Courtesy of Barbara Whitesides
Whitesides able a accommodating ambiance from his aboriginal canicule as a professor. Accession associates from all eras of his teaching career anamnesis such a aggregation spirit. “Nobody anytime said that you formed ‘for’ George Whitesides; you formed ‘with’ him,” says Charles P. Casey, a aloft Whitesides student. “He was consistently aggravating to get bodies to booty buying of their problems, to appear up with their own account of what to do next, and to animate that affectionate of independence.” Casey, now an emeritus abettor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and aloft ACS president, was Whitesides’ aboriginal alum student.
As a alum apprentice in the 1970s, Ralph G. Nuzzo came to MIT alive that he capital to assignment with Whitesides. He camped alfresco Whitesides’ aperture to actuate him to booty him on. Like Casey, Nuzzo acquainted that he collaborated with Whitesides rather than formed for him. Their collaborations connected alike afterwards Nuzzo took a job at Bell Laboratories. Nuzzo, of Italian descent, affectionately refers to Whitesides as his “goombah,” which colloquially agency godfather. Nuzzo is now a allure abettor at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
“When you’re alive with George, you absolutely are allotment of the team,” says aloft postdoc Milan Mrksich, now a allure abettor at the University of Chicago. “He does a abundant job of bringing out the best in anniversary of his coworkers. He’s acutely the smartest actuality in the accession and the actuality with the best intuition and the broadest adeptness of abounding areas of science and engineering.”
From his ancient canicule as a professor, Whitesides has had a ambition of inventing techniques that can be broadly disseminated. His accession has had the greatest appulse in areas breadth they developed techniques that were adopted by the broader community, abnormally bendable lithography and microcontact printing, which are techniques for architecture intricate microscale patterns and appearance in a array of materials.
IN THE CASE of apparent chemistry, one affair aloof artlessly led to another. The accession started by belief polyethylene surfaces. Again Whitesides became complex with the assuming and appliance of the alkanethiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers invented by Nuzzo and David L. Allara, currently a abettor of polymer science and allure at Pennsylvania State University. That assignment flowed into bendable lithography work, in which the self-assembled monolayers are acclimated as templates for the accession of patterns on a surface. “George started cerebration of self-assembled monolayers as a action for ambidextrous with the difficult and cost-centric problems associated with [traditional] lithography,” Nuzzo says.
The assignment in bendable lithography added developed into microcontact printing, in which bendable lithography is acclimated to actualize stamps that can be acclimated to alteration patterns on a surface, abundant as stamps can be acclimated to alteration ink to paper. “The abstraction of aggravating to do a one-to-one backup of lithography with microcontact press was an adventurous aspiration,” Nuzzo says. “There will be applications whereby huge areas of bartering convenance are activity to be impacted by all sorts of anarchistic approaches to artifact and integration.”
In little added than a decade, bendable lithography and microcontact press access become accepted techniques in abounding areas of engineering and abstracts science. “It’s so accepted that abounding adolescent alum acceptance in engineering labs don’t consistently apperceive that those methods were developed by the Whitesides laboratory,” Mrksich says.
Whitesides no best studies those self-assembled monolayers and bendable lithography techniques for their own sake. Instead, he uses them to abode questions in added areas, such as corpuscle biology.
Whitesides belted against biological analysis and got his aboriginal aftertaste of multidisciplinary teamwork at MIT. Shortly afterwards abutting the faculty, he was arrive to accompany an NSF-funded biotechnology activity in the actinic engineering administration because the organizers couldn’t argue a biochemist to participate. Whitesides was adolescent abundant and analytic abundant to access the invitation. That activity gave Whitesides an befalling to assignment with biologists and to apprentice the basics of a acreage that he still works in today. Abundant of Whitesides’ afterwards assignment application enzymes for amoebic synthesis, developing biocompatible surfaces, and architecture microfludic accessories for corpuscle analysis stems from that antecedent collaborative project.
In 1982, afterwards 19 years at MIT, Whitesides confused aloft boondocks to access a position at Harvard. Nostalgia for his undergraduate years at Harvard played no role in his accommodation to move, he says. In fact, he is hard-pressed to appear up with an account aloft defective a “change of scenery.” He acknowledges that his appearance of research, with its accent on activated problems, charcoal bigger attuned to the engineering spirit at MIT.
At Harvard, Whitesides’ accession has connected its change from one that focused on concrete amoebic allure to one that uses allure as an entr??e into abounding added disciplines. Back John A. Rogers, now a abstracts science and engineering abettor at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, was a affiliate of the Association of Fellows at Harvard, he formed with Whitesides. “Chemistry was the bulk adeptness that provided the aggressive advantage, but there was no adroitness of allure as a almost authentic discipline. It was allure to break problems, not necessarily to do chemistry,” Rogers says. That’s why it fabricated absolute adroitness in Whitesides’ ambience to booty a bulk of allure adeptness and adeptness into areas like electronics or eyes or biology, Rogers continues.
The problems in Whitesides’ accession are called for their appulse on society, Rogers observes. “Everything is scientifically absorbing at some level,” he says. “In the amplitude of all scientifically absorbing things, why not baddest those things that access the abeyant for abiding impact?”
Whitesides additionally lets his interests adviser him in acrimonious analysis problems, absorption on questions that he thinks are important yet additionally acquiescent and instructive. “We don’t accomplish a bright acumen amid science and technology,” he says. “We try to accomplish a acumen amid acceptable and bad or able-bodied done and ailing done.” He subscribes to Thomas Kuhn’s acumen amid puzzles and problems, and he believes they both access their place. “In the accession of affirmation that comes with addle analytic is generally active those things that become actual important indicators that there’s a botheration about that has to be solved,” Whitesides says.
Whitesides has switched analysis areas abounding times in his career. “Some bodies could attending at George’s assignment and admiration how he has entered fields, tackled boxy problems in them successfully, and again confused on. He has done that again by allurement axiological questions of what seemed to anybody to be around awkward problems,” Knowles says. “He has the axiological artistic adventurousness of a absolute alpha scientist.” Whitesides is “one of the best all-embracing scientists I know,” Knowles says.
Mark S. Wrighton, now the adjudicator of Washington University, St. Louis, has accepted Whitesides back they were both advisers at MIT. “Sometimes back bodies become so abundant in the aloft of what they’re doing, you admiration if they access the bookish adeptness to be absolutely deep,” he says. “George is accommodating to dive into areas breadth he doesn’t apperceive a lot and to advance the time bare to apprentice and access the analytical issues that charge to be addressed.”
Convincing the association to access those career accouterment is tough. “If you access spent the aboriginal 20 years of your career alive on x and you try to move to y, the association will usually annihilate you,” Whitesides says. His boilerplate administration in an breadth has been about 10 years. “When we confused out of organometallics, I bethink there were all kinds of bodies who were absolutely affronted because we were accomplishing acceptable assignment with organometallic mechanisms, there were lots of acceptable problems in organometallic mechanisms, and we didn’t apperceive annihilation about this added stuff.” Whitesides’ analysis administration has afflicted so generally back the alpha of his career that he has had people—usually adolescent ones—ask him if he’s accompanying to the George Whitesides who already advised organometallic chemistry.
The Whitesides ancestors gathers at the bells of George T. and Loretta Hidalgo.
Credit: Courtesy of Barbara Whitesides
ONE OF THE SIGNS that it’s time for him to move on is back abounding added bodies are auspiciously advancing an area. “If we’re not accomplishing article unique, why do it?” Whitesides asks. “It’s a big big-ticket accession with actual acute people. Unless we’re accomplishing article that is altered from what added bodies can do, I don’t see any acumen we should be accomplishing it.”
Teri W. Odom, a aloft postdoc at Harvard and now an abettor abettor at Northwestern University, remembers Whitesides cogent her that “if you’re alive in an breadth that everybody is alive on, you’re activity to access to be abundant smarter or abundant added artistic and abundant better” to get advanced of the game.
Rarely, however, does an breadth become arid to Whitesides. It’s aloof that “other things become added interesting,” he says. Now his tastes tend to run to big-picture problems. He has programs belief the origins of life, applications of cutting-edge science to developing-world problems, and complexity, which he defines broadly as systems with interacting components.
For abounding Whitesides accession members, their time in his accession introduces them to problems they access never considered. Whitesides pushes boundaries for abounding of his accession members.
“You ask yourself what you’ve gotten yourself into, because 80% of what he says you don’t understand,” Mrksich says. “There’s a absolute browbeating in acumen that the kinds of projects you adeptness be alive on are in areas you’ve never anticipation about afore and that George seems to apperceive a abundant accord about every topic.”
“George consistently challenges you to anticipate about bigger problems,” Odom says. “I was aggravating to call some baby things that I adeptness be absorbed in, but he kept banishment me to put them into a broader context.”
Odom thinks that Whitesides’ lab is a “playground” for postdocs, who can acquire from a cardinal of altered areas. “George is a generalist abandoned in the adroitness that he has interests in a lot of areas of science. For postdocs, that’s abundant because you’ve had specific training in article and now you analyze added accepted questions,” she says. “For students, unless they are acclimatized to dig abysmal into a problem, they adeptness aloof access a lot of accepted abilities or accepted expertise.”
Whitesides himself suggests that his accepted interests are a bigger fit for postdocs than students. Back advancing to Harvard, his accession has commonly been breach analogously amid alum acceptance and postdocs, but the antithesis has confused against postdocs in contempo years. “I acquisition that the kinds of problems that are acceptable for alum acceptance are not necessarily the kinds of problems I’m absorbed in appropriate now,” he says. “The questions that are best absorbing to me are questions of origins of activity or complication or things like that breadth it’s adamantine abundant to ascertain the question, let abandoned break it.”
MANY PEOPLE enthuse about Whitesides as a mentor. “George will accord bodies a adventitious that added bodies won’t necessarily be accommodating to offer,” says Mara Prentiss, a abettor in the physics department. “A lot of bodies to whom George has accustomed a adventitious access absolutely thrived.” Abounding alumni access adopted scaled-down elements of Whitesides’ access in their own groups.
Teaching is an important and advantageous allotment of Whitesides’ job. He angle himself as the aloft almsman of his teaching experiences, because it armament him to anticipate about new account or about old account in new ways. “If you can explain article to yourself, you adeptness be able to explain it to freshmen,” he says. “I access spent abounding hours amid 11 at night and four in the morning cerebration about the actual simplest genitalia of science because there was a address the abutting day.”
Whitesides and Prentiss team-teach a nanotechnology advance to Harvard acceptance who aren’t majoring in science. “One of George’s abundant ability is to transform acutely difficult account into a anatomy that is both apprehensible to a lay actuality and correct,” Prentiss says. “He puts a huge bulk of accomplishment into cogent them absolutely the way it works after accepting to use concepts they don’t understand.”
Whitesides and Prentiss bisect the lectures amid them, authoritative it accessible to board Whitesides’ animated biking schedule. They additionally try to accomplish a claimed affiliation with the acceptance by alms to access cafeteria or banquet with every apprentice in the class.
This spring, Whitesides is a affiliate of a aggregation alms a advance in anterior concrete sciences for allure and physics students. His allocation of the chic will accord with issues of anarchy and information. “Information can be anticipation of as the abrogating of entropy,” he says. “I intend to ask myself questions about the advice agreeable of the cell.” Teaching the chic will accord him an befalling to anticipate about issues he hasn’t fabricated time to anticipate about before. “It seems to me I’m the big winner,” he says.
Through his accord with Frankel, Whitesides has had an befalling to accompany science to a accepted admirers as well. Their book “On the Apparent of Things,” which featured photographs by Frankel and accompanying descriptions of the science of apparent phenomena by Whitesides, will be appear in an adapted adaptation this fall.
Another way that Whitesides is bringing his assignment to a beyond admirers is by commercializing it. He has been complex in about a dozen start-ups over the years. His affection for companies grows out of his analytic access to science. “I anticipate universities access an obligation to try to accomplish what they do real,” he says. At the aforementioned time, he recognizes that a university’s aboriginal albatross is to its students. He believes that acceptance shouldn’t be assigned a “boring analysis problem” to access benign after-effects for a company. The easiest way to abstain such a bearings is to “have acceptance assignment on the abutting company,” he explains. That is, access acceptance assignment on science “that with luck in 10 years adeptness be article interesting.”
Universities and industry, Whitesides believes, comedy commutual roles in the ambition of authoritative a bigger society. “To say that there should be no acquaintance amid the two is crazy, and to say that the two should be alloyed is crazy,” he says. “It should be a acceptable marriage.”
Whitesides is accurate to accumulate the analysis in his accession audible from that in companies he’s complex with. For example, the aggregation NanoTerra, based in Cambridge, is alive on commercializing bendable lithography as a accomplishment technique. Whitesides still uses bendable lithography aural his bookish group, but they accompany altered applications. In addition example, Theravance, based in South San Francisco, is a biotech aggregation that is developing polyvalent drugs. Whitesides still studies polyvalency, which refers to atomic entities with assorted bounden sites, but his accepted absorption is in why antibodies are divalent. Both of these companies use bookish acreage developed in Whitesides’ lab.
Whitesides has been carefully complex with anniversary of the companies he helped cofound. The best acknowledged to date has been GelTex Pharmaceutical, which was bought by Genzyme for about $1.3 billion. GelTex was not based on Whitesides’ bookish property. Harry Mandeville, a aloft Whitesides alum apprentice who was additionally the aboriginal agent at GelTex, jokes that he wants to abide Whitesides’ cardinal one student—the one who fabricated the best money for Whitesides. Whitesides does not use the money he earns from companies to armamentarium analysis in his lab, although he does use award-winning money that way.
IN ADDITION to his bookish and automated work, Whitesides has a able adroitness of accessible service. He has served on abounding advising panels in the Administration of Defense and at the National Academy of Sciences, of which he has been a affiliate back 1978. Aftermost year, he served on the board that wrote the address “Rising aloft the Gathering Storm,” a congressionally requested address that recommends means to advance American competitiveness in science and technology. He is the accepted administrator of the Board on Science, Engineering & Accessible Action (COSEPUP) at the National Academies. The board conducts studies on issues in science and technology action that cantankerous disciplines and monitors developments in U.S. science and technology action for the academies’ leadership.
Ralph J. Cicerone, admiral of the National Academy of Sciences, has empiric Whitesides at board meetings. “He brand to be guided by the facts,” Cicerone says. “He’s accommodating to chase the affirmation wherever it leads.”
Cicerone had to argue Whitesides to access the COSEPUP position. Whitesides “raised acceptable counterpoints and fair questions about whether his time would be able-bodied acclimated and how he anticipation it would be best used,” Cicerone says. “Life is now abundantly abounding that if I do x, I access to bandy y overboard,” Whitesides says.
As he approaches his 70th birthday, Whitesides shows no signs of slowing down. “Retirement intrinsically suggests that you would adopt to do article else,” says George T. “I don’t anticipate my ancestor currently feels that he would adopt to do annihilation else. He’s got such a bluntly affluent and assorted able career appropriate now and, almost speaking, so abundant flexibility, that I don’t anticipate he absolutely sees a acumen to stop.”
When asked about affairs for retiring, Whitesides doesn’t absolutely answer. He claims that he and his wife, Barbara, are in a contest, the champ actuality the aboriginal to die. He says, abandoned partly joking: “My achievement is that at some point I’m run over by a streetcar.” In the meantime, he affairs to abide working. “I’ve never apparent George added absorbed than he is now,” Barbara says.
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