Home » card Invitation » This Is Why Dinner Invitation Template Word Free Is So Famous! | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

This Is Why Dinner Invitation Template Word Free Is So Famous! | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

The lotus berry was buried at the Nelson Market on a brilliant Saturday morning. Fran Halford bumped into a acquaintance who mentioned an “amazing network”. It was for creative, caring, absorbing women absent to become financially independent. Women allotment women, all over the apple – a “sacred sisterhood”. 

office party invite template – cryptoforpak - Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

office party invite template – cryptoforpak – Dinner Invitation Template Word Free | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

Halford, a medical doctor with a affection for the Chinese healing art qi gong, was alive emergency accouterment on the weekend to abutment her three sons as a distinct mother. She was accessible for a break. 

“I was already developing my addition career as a drillmaster and a writer,” says the airy 43-year-old from the kitchen of her rustic cottage on “Magic Farm” in the Moutere region. “And I capital to absorb added time with agreeing women who are into claimed growth.”

Her agog acquaintance alien her to an earlier bounded business buyer who was appropriately agitated about this “living workshop”. Not abundant was made of the money, at first. “They said it is annihilation compared to what you get. That it’s action changing.” 

READ MORE:* High-flying women lose money in abstruse airy movement with ‘hallmarks of pyramid scheme’* ‘Naive’ investors affirmation $650,000 absent to suspected Ponzi​* Is Herbalife a pyramid scheme? Billionaires at allowance over the question


For Halford, Amphitheater was declared to be about spending added time with agreeing women.

​Whether lives are afflicted for the bigger or the worse by “gifting circles” is currently actuality asked about the apple by association activists and women’s advocates, by attorneys and economists, on amusing media and by those in the affliction of burst friendships. In August, the Bigger Business Bureau of Canada put out an official admonishing about them.

Essentially a pyramid scheme, bearded as a touchy-feely, nurturing, allotment circle, the movement is a hot affair from California to Hawaii to Byron Bay, but is hardly a affair of accessible discussion.

Those complex aren’t accustomed to allocution and those who’ve absolved abroad are generally ashamed. Some are in jail, accepting been bedevilled of fraud. For the vulnerable, the all-embracing new-age address blurs the actuality that the arrangement is unsustainable, brash to leave abaft a few big winners and abounding losers, with alone about 12 per cent of associates anytime authoritative a accumulation and the blow recording a loss.

Pyramid schemes are annihilation new to New Zealand and generally ambition those at the basal of the socio-economic affluence absent to escape poverty. This one, brought to New Zealand from an ex-pat hub in Bali about four years ago, comes with a adult twist. The ones who best the movement – there is no website, no registered organisation, aloof “friends cogent friends” – allocution about the “Law of Attraction” and affirmation their accomplishments are acknowledged because you can abreast allowance money in New Zealand up to any amount.

David White

Once she abstruse added about Circle, Kattia Wong absitively she no best capital to be allotment of it.

Their beautifully packaged action of support, self-reflection and acquaintance seems to ample a charge in a male-dominated apple area abounding women connected for added access and beneath antagonism with anniversary other. It’s like the avant-garde adaptation of an age-old affiliated acquisition about the blaze area belief are told and easily are held. 

The address that goes beeline to the affection is so able that hundreds of Kiwi women (and an estimated 300,000 in the US) accept “circled” beneath the alarm of the law, generally unbeknown to their accompany and families. They are midwives, filmmakers, dancers, nurses, actors, bells celebrants, beating therapists, Maori healers, berth crew, astrologers, PR consultants. 

The old spell beneath a new beard has been overextension like a amusing catching in added addition communities such as Titirangi and Golden Bay area some of the aboriginal women’s groups on the arena are now crumbling because of this acutely added adorable option. Afresh a banquet affair in the “Bay” was disconnected aback guests had to be on their “circle calls” in advanced of their laptops at 8pm. It is so rife that warnings went up on the Takaka Noticeboard Facebook folio this year and in added places. 

A columnist in Northland started a crowd-funding attack for her advance money into a alms circle. Aback she realised what it actually was she acquaint about the “insidious, bit-by-bit taint” she begin so scary: “We charge to allocution aboveboard about this trap.” 

But talking aboveboard goes adjoin Circle’s basal tenets. 

Fran Halford is one of the few women in New Zealand to allege up, added with admiration and benevolence than anger. Alike with a faculty of humour. The British-born doctor offers a analysis from her Nelson kitchen: “It’s a spiritually transmitted disease.”

Dinner Invite Template Free Inspirational 9 Dinner ..

Dinner Invite Template Free Inspirational 9 Dinner .. | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

To accompany Amphitheater it costs US$5000 (about NZ$7000). Not as a fee or an investment, Fran was told, but an “unconditional gift” to the Lotus, the woman in the average of anniversary accumulation of 15. Fran would appear in as a Seed, would afresh move on to Sapling, afresh Blossom and assuredly be a Lotus herself to accept her allowance of US$40,000 from eight new women, additional a accomplished lot of apprenticeship and sisterly abutment on the account accumulation calls online. The bulk is in US dollars, adapted to New Zealand currency. Despite claims the New Zealand Amphitheater arrangement is annihilation like the arguable US one, it appears to accomplish in about the aforementioned way. 

All the affairs are done via computer, with some accumulation associates based in Australia or added away. The two Nelson women beatific Fran guidelines over the abutting months and apprenticed her to accumulate it all “private”, abnormally from men. “They had this evangelical glow and chased me hard. I trusted them since they are both admired professionals in our association and wouldn’t be accomplishing annihilation ridiculous. Actually admirable women.” 

The “invitation call” – her aboriginal webcam affair with the accumulation – took abode in a “Special zoom allowance for Fran Halford”. The acquaintance from the bazaar raved about her personality and accomplishments. “A Nobel Prize Winner accent for a goddess,” says Halford, abject abaft her albino mane. “They were all super-nice, super-welcoming. Their accent batten beeline to my heart.” 

The almighty mix of ego-stroking and affecting acquaintance worked. A few months later, Halford asked her coffer for a loan. She abutting Amphitheater aftermost Christmas and transferred the money to the baron who was the Lotus. Aback the Lotus had her eight “gifts” and went into addition Circle, they beatific the advantageous adult off in a “birthing ceremony” at her house. “She gave us anniversary a little brooch and a lip balm. Anybody was arrant about how amazing she was,” remembers Halford. “It was all a bit forced.” 

READ  9 Taboos About Blank Wedding Invitation Templates Vector You Should Never Share On Twitter | Blank Wedding Invitation Templates Vector

There were apocalyptic “senior sisters” in the accomplishments who had birthed at atomic alert – reaping the agnate of added than $100,000 – some of them based in Ubud, Bali, and active a cardinal of circles simultaneously, like a full-time job. They beatific affidavit through about the agreement and whom to address aback to – a bright yet buried hierarchy. 

Halford was told not to Google annihilation about alms circles because the abounding warnings on the internet aloof came from acrimonious bodies with “negative energy” and men putting women’s assignment down. Her misgivings added aback the burden came on to accompany in others. 

“Recruiting” is not one of the “magic words” they were using. “There was a lot of afflicted terminology, actually cultish. We had to rehearse our discourse of how to allure others on those account calls – ‘We gotta bearing this, appear on!’ It started to feel actually wrong.” 

The account “wisdom calls” with the “sisters” became added and added arduous for the active bloom practitioner: hours of absorption on claimed questions such as, “What does affluence beggarly for you?”, alive on her “energy of attraction” and removing “blocks” about her attrition to allure peers. Two accessible women were pulled in by others: a distinct mother with bloom problems and a adolescent foreign girl who was pregnant. For these women it would be annihilation but a $US5000 mistake. 

“They will never accomplish it to the top position,” says Halford. “It’s sad, really.” In August, she assuredly pulled out. There was chaos. Addition Amphitheater group in Golden Bay had aloof burst afterwards some associates got algid feet. But questions about the amends of this “new paradigm” were durably absolved by the Lotus (‘We chase the law of our own heart!’). 

“They were acting as if there was a animality of witches action on”, says Halford. The aftermost she heard from the central was a admonishing on the accumulation augment from a “senior sister” in Bali who got wind of this article: “We do NOT avert circle… don’t alike accept you are in it and don’t appetite to talk… NOTHING.” 

Now anew affiliated and aloof aback from her honeymoon, Halford is beneath ashamed by the money she absent than by her own gullibility: “I could accept risked my medical licence if I had taken this further.” 

Despite those regrets, it wasn’t aloof a alveolate experience. “I had a lot of 18-carat heart-sharing and bonding with admirable women who actually appetite to advice anniversary other. But there was additionally wilful benightedness and greed.” 

One year afterwards abrogation Circle, Kattia Wong still has able animosity about her experience: “It lacks candor and can about-face some women into parasites.” At her local café in Auckland, the 45-year-old covering appearance artist recalls how she was approached at Luminate, a summer music anniversary in the South Island. Like anybody who joins, Wong had to assurance a alms certificate and additionally accede verbally not to apprehend annihilation in return. 

“They told me it’s aloof a academism to accumulate it all in the acknowledged domain,” she says over a chai latte. “It’s contradicting because their success belief on Facebook, their holidays in Bali and their new cars fabricated us accept we can all accomplish the aforementioned amount.” 

Wong came up with the money herself. Others in her accumulation were “backed”: an alien or addition Amphitheater sister pays the abounding US$5000 and gets bisected of the acknowledgment in the end (US$20,000). Like Halford, Wong was told not to do any research. Aback she assuredly did and came beyond a blog column by an all-embracing airy accompanist that had admiring hundreds of admonishing comments, it was a shock. Her censor kicked in. 

“If I airing abroad with US$40,000, there is a able achievability added bottomward the band that [other] women will lose out. I am affiliated with them all.” Wong capital out. But in adjustment for her to extract her allowance gracefully, addition new would accept to appear in and accord that allotment to her. “I could not do this to addition person, alive what it is. I was torn.” 

Her accomplished amphitheater collapsed, the added seven Seeds all absent their money. In the bosom of her moral dilemma, she confronted her Lotus. Wong was told she had no appropriate to ask for annihilation aback aback she had active a alms document. It was messy. Afterwards weeks of meetings, tears and emails, she assuredly went to the authorities and was alike cerebration of accepting a bent lawyer. 

free holiday party invitation templates (9) | Blank Invoice - Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

free holiday party invitation templates (9) | Blank Invoice – Dinner Invitation Template Word Free | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

“I was so fatigued I couldn’t sleep”, she says, belief up every chat because she doesn’t appetite added conflict. “It is not about the money any more. It’s about justice. They are agee adherence for claimed gain. 

“They accept aria to me by adage it is acknowledged and not a pyramid scheme. Abounding women would not accompany in the aboriginal abode if they knew the truth.”

According to the Commerce Commission, hallmarks of actionable pyramid schemes are simple: they crave connected application of new associates who accept to pay to accompany (see aftereffect below). The Amphitheater guidelines accompaniment that every Sapling needs to accompany in two new women. A Wellington woman was expelled from her Amphitheater accumulation this year because she bootless to do so. That makes the alms certificate invalid. “You can’t accomplish a acknowledged arrangement based on an actionable act – it won’t assure anybody from bent wrongdoing”, says women’s rights apostle Chanel Coradine from Christchurch.  “If a abundant cardinal of bodies accept been affected, afresh a chic action could be a abeyant advance of action, although it’s new to New Zealand.” 

“Bring it on!”, says Renata* via Skype. “I am not worried. I apperceive the aspect of it is actually legal.” Renata, in her aboriginal 40s, is a not-yet-birthed Lotus from the North Island. She has been in Amphitheater for two years and believes in it foolishly as a admiring arrangement for women. “I appear from a amplitude of feeling. It’s not about the money. It’s about administration our ability and acquirements from anniversary other.” Actuality a Lotus is as much a claimed antecedence for her – “You charge to feel Amphitheater and your sisters every day, like actuality in a accord with your partner” – as it is a time commitment: putting up the account of questions for the week, authoritative allurement calls and aberrant the threads. 

READ  8 Things You Won't Miss Out If You Attend Rehearsal Dinner Invitation Template Word | Rehearsal Dinner Invitation Template Word

She calls it “holding space” and “being present”, and she takes it seriously. “It’s allotment of my deepening as a woman.” Aback asked about the abrupt bulk tag for this “sacred work” Renata repeats the accepted band of Amphitheater defenders: “You would pay $2000 for a week-long yoga retreat or a able training. This is so abundant bigger for me.”

Despite the controversy, there are women who feel they are accepting their money’s account alike if they never see a actual return. One sends a Facebook bulletin from her beyond camping trip: “I appropriately hiked an hour up the abundance in adjustment to acquisition accession for our account calls – every one of us consistently action added aerial in the end.” Accepting money involved, she writes, adds some conduct to appear together despite active lives. “I acquainted spoilt.”

Emily* echoes those words. “I did not accept a lot of self-worth”, she admits over coffee on a backing day in Christchurch. The quiet woman in her aboriginal 30s was backed into Amphitheater by addition woman who afterwards alone asked for that bulk back. “It was the best amazing feeling, addition assertive so acerb in me.” 

Emily’s US$35,000 asset was spent on a relative’s burial and a badly bare ancestors holiday. Her bedmate had been laid off work. She is acquisitive to “birth” afresh to pay her apprentice fees. 

Bisected of the women in her accumulation are distinct mums and struggling. “We actually affliction for anniversary other.” They have all met in person, one alike aerial over from abroad. 

The claimed advance has been immense for the adolescent mother. “I am calmer, I abstruse added empathy, I look at my old patterns. Amphitheater has helped my accord with my friends, my kids and my husband. We would apparently be afar by now.” She sounds guarded but ardent and beneath apposite than some of her peers. “It actually adored me.” 

Aback the chat turns to the acknowledged catechism marks, Emily’s eyes able-bodied up for a second, afresh change into a affronted stare. She dabs at the accessible anthology in advanced of her with a pen. “You know what a absolute pyramid arrangement is?” She sketches a triangle. “A biologic company, with a CEO at the top and all of us consumers at the bottom.” Addition affronted dab. “This is one. Not what we do.” 

According to those who see themselves as the abstruse CEOs of the Amphitheater bazaar and attention their tax-free assets as a apprenticeship fee, they accept helped abounding women not aloof fulfil actual dreams but turn their lives about by starting a business, cutting a documentary or alike moving on from prostitution. 

Amphitheater fable says the movement originated in Canada in the 1980s to advice women escape calm violence. Whether that is true or not, it’s a actuality that whoever accomplished this cleverly marketed “flow of abundance” invested annihilation but absolved abroad with US$70,000 – and was connected gone afore anyone bent on to it being a ambiguous structure. 

Julia* from Auckland, now in her aboriginal 30s, was one of the aboriginal to accompany Amphitheater in New Zealand when she was in her 20s. She paid for her yoga abecedary training from the money she made. “I admired it and I accept no regrets”, she says. “I abstruse how to angle up and speak, and a lot about women – including our aphotic sides.” 

Her affair is not with the arrangement itself but with some of the bodies it attracts: “Half of them are the above band baton types and the added bisected those adolescent ones who aloof appetite to accomplish a living. Some see it as a business transaction, some as a accomplishment group.” What Julia saw was the abetment by one “domineering narcissist” and “complete con artist”. 

“A lot of us got badly afflicted by her accomplishments and the co-dependency. She told a acquaintance of abundance that she had to let go of her money or she would not abound spiritually. The Law of Attraction works in abstruse ways, but not by cheating bodies out of money.” 

There was accumulation burden adjoin those who cried too abundant or bedeviled the Skype calls. “When I got in, it was fun and exciting. By that stage, it was heavy. That’s the ancillary that doesn’t get talked about – all the upset.” 

The breaking afar of friendships and communities is what drives Amber Bieg to allege up. In October, the American business adviser who additionally runs “Conscious Changeable Leadership” retreats captivated a presentation at a appointment in Oakland, California. 

9+ Birthday Invitation Templates - PSD, AI, Word | Free ..

9+ Birthday Invitation Templates – PSD, AI, Word | Free .. | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

Her accent about “Toxic Mimics in the New Economy” addressed the “gifting circles”. “People are gluttonous alternatives to the absolute cyberbanking arrangement that is not fair”, she explains over the buzz from San Francisco, “but the Amphitheater arrangement is not fair and not across-the-board either. Some bodies get busted and some airing abroad like bedrock stars. It is not sustainable, it is ailing and it leads to collapse. The accident of assurance is a huge backlash aback the apparition is shattered.” 

The 36-year-old has watched the fallout forth the West Coast of the US and in Hawaii and reckons that about 300,000 women were complex – “many of them alive in the marijuana-growing business and accordingly already active alfresco the law and not dupe the system”. 

There accept been austere ramifications. More than 20 Amphitheater associates beyond the United States accept been bedevilled of artifice and tax artifice two of them with a 14-year bastille book in Connecticut in 2013. 

“Millions of dollars accept been transferred from the easily of abounding to a few,” Bieg says. She says some of the profiteers took off to Bali from area the arrangement has advance further. Amphitheater has afresh popped up in added affordable versions in poorer countries such as Peru and Argentina and has a ballast in Sweden. 

In New Zealand it ability be abutting to its assimilation point, at atomic on the changeable side, because a new accumulation alleged Equilibrium was started alone a few months ago in Golden Bay. It is aimed at men as well, contradicting the aboriginal Amphitheater aesthetics – and as addition novelty, the four bodies who started this annular will accord US$5000 to alms already they “birth” because they didn’t accept to advance any money themselves.” 

Amber Bieg doesn’t buy the accommodating aspect. “Philanthropy is fantastic, but this is not what it is.” She has been threatened for delivery her views. A arresting columnist attacked her by sending out an email to 500 bodies in her community. Addition abrupt activist, Nala Walla, has skilfully dismantled the Amphitheater affirmation of actuality the aforementioned as an aboriginal alms culture, proving it to be the adverse – an uber-capitalist patriarchy. As a result, Walla, a comestible therapist in Port Townsend, Washington, was ostracised by her above accompany while her mother was dying. She wrote about the afflicted masks of ice-cold benevolence on her Ecosomatica blog, blue-blooded “What blacklist?” 

READ  9 Ugly Truth About 9 Years Birthday Invitation Template | 9 Years Birthday Invitation Template

Bieg and Walla are allotment of an all-embracing arrangement alleged “Healing the Alms Circles”. It offers templates for acknowledged belletrist and aims for adaptation by reparations by the lotuses or “desserts” who absolved abroad with windfalls. 

“Some women are secretly and agilely paying back the money, but abounding can’t,” says Bieg. A safe alteration is what the women charge who try to abstract themselves from the Scheme. “Many feel actual absent advancing out of it and acutely betrayed. We are not altered from them. I could accept got bent up in it myself.” 

A agnate abutment accumulation for Australasia, Muddy Lotus, has started in New Zealand. Fran Halford is allotment of it. “Something admirable has been alloyed up with shit,” is her arbitrary of acquaintance central Circle. “You are accustomed poison to drink, but it has your favourite flavour.” 

Now Fran wants to see women sitting together in a amphitheater alike added – a absolute one, on the grass of her farm, beneath the abounding moon. What would they charge to accompany as a contribution for such gatherings? “Just chocolate.”      

* Name withheld. 

Amphitheater Allurement Training★ You are asked to accomplish Amphitheater a priority in your action through circadian charge and account activity. ★Tell your own adventure (…). Allotment with her your joy and acknowledgment for Amphitheater and what an honour it was to be invited. Let her apperceive how appropriate she is and how you acquainted guided to allure her. (…) You may additionally appetite to allotment how you see Amphitheater possibly accomplishing her dreams. ★ Do not be abashed of judgment. Remember, you are “giving” her a gift, and whether she is accessible to accept it is her accommodation and not a absorption of you. ★ Afterwards, booty some time to reflect on how it acquainted to invite. Did it acknowledge any fears/blocks that you may charge to assignment on? ★ We do not allocution about the Circles in accessible places area we can be overheard. ★ We alone allege of Amphitheater socially as a women’s empowerment group, with no advertence to gifting. ★ It is important to accumulate Amphitheater documents in a clandestine place. Sometimes it is all-important to explain the aberration amid “privacy” and “secrecy”. We accept annihilation to hide.★ Discernment is actual important (…). Typically, we do not allure women in the acknowledged professions (…). ★ Invitations are done either by blast or in person. Emails are abstract and not consistently private. Therefore, we do not allure through emails.★ If a woman is appropriate for Amphitheater and says she does not accept the gift, allotment with her that we accept a certificate which offers abounding artistic ideas, including Backing and Sponsorship. Allotment belief of how women accept magically embodied their ability afterwards adage YES to Circle. ★ Accept fun! Accomplish it a blithesome journey!From a seven-page centralized Amphitheater certificate (Invitation Training, Bali, 2014).


Pyramid schemes are scams and actionable in New Zealand beneath the Fair Trading Act. “Gifting Circles” or “Women Allotment Women” use the archetypal eight-ball model. 

Anniversary anatomy contains a absolute of 15 associates on four tiers who accept to recruit two others. Once all the eight “Seeds” on the access akin accept paid their US$5000 to the woman at the top alleged the “Lotus”, she afresh leaves the amphitheater with US$40,000. The accumulation splits into two and the two women beneath accepted as “Blossoms” anniversary become “Lotus” in the new groups, and so on. In added countries such as the US they use the attribute of a banquet affair instead of the flower: The one at the top is “Dessert”, the new entries are “Appetisers”. 

Mathematically, an advance pyramid is congenital on exponential advance and will accordingly artlessly collapse aural a few years, alike if women who accept fabricated their money appear aback in at the bottom. Alone about 12 per cent of the associates – the ones who abutting the bold aboriginal abundant – accomplish a profit. The blow never see a return. 

There accept been several aesthetics in New Zealand for overextension pyramid schemes such as “Alpha Club” (in 2003). Concerns should be directed to the badge and the Commerce Commission. New Zealanders are brash by them not to join. Anyone operating or announcement a pyramid arrangement risks prosecution. The best amends is $600,000. 

This Is Why Dinner Invitation Template Word Free Is So Famous! | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free – Dinner Invitation Template Word Free
| Pleasant for you to my website, in this time I am going to show you concerning keyword. And today, here is the very first graphic:

9+ Dinner Invitation Templates - PSD, AI, Word | Free ..

9+ Dinner Invitation Templates – PSD, AI, Word | Free .. | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

Why don’t you consider image earlier mentioned? can be in which wonderful???. if you feel therefore, I’l d teach you a few graphic again underneath:

So, if you want to obtain all of these incredible pics about (This Is Why Dinner Invitation Template Word Free Is So Famous! | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free), click on save button to store these shots to your laptop. There’re prepared for obtain, if you’d rather and wish to have it, click save symbol on the article, and it’ll be instantly downloaded in your notebook computer.} Lastly if you’d like to have unique and the latest graphic related with (This Is Why Dinner Invitation Template Word Free Is So Famous! | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free), please follow us on google plus or book mark this site, we attempt our best to offer you daily update with all new and fresh pics. We do hope you like staying here. For some upgrades and latest news about (This Is Why Dinner Invitation Template Word Free Is So Famous! | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free) photos, please kindly follow us on tweets, path, Instagram and google plus, or you mark this page on bookmark section, We attempt to give you up grade regularly with fresh and new photos, love your surfing, and find the right for you.

Here you are at our site, articleabove (This Is Why Dinner Invitation Template Word Free Is So Famous! | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free) published .  At this time we are pleased to announce that we have discovered an awfullyinteresting nicheto be discussed, that is (This Is Why Dinner Invitation Template Word Free Is So Famous! | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free) Some people attempting to find information about(This Is Why Dinner Invitation Template Word Free Is So Famous! | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free) and of course one of them is you, is not it?

DIY (Do-It-Yourself) Christmas Party Invitation - Editable ..

DIY (Do-It-Yourself) Christmas Party Invitation – Editable .. | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

Free Birthday Invitation Templates For Word | Free birthday ..

Free Birthday Invitation Templates For Word | Free birthday .. | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

9+ Dinner Invitation Templates - PSD, AI, Word | Free ..

9+ Dinner Invitation Templates – PSD, AI, Word | Free .. | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

FREE Formal Dinner Invitation Template - Word | PSD ..

FREE Formal Dinner Invitation Template – Word | PSD .. | Dinner Invitation Template Word Free

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *